Joann Peterson, Alan Treat
This paper reviews changes in global cargo security policies following September 11, 2001. The events of 9/11 led to the establishment of new protocols for tracking and screening cargo both in the United States and in foreign countries. These protocols have been incorporated into international frameworks such as those under the World Customs Organization (WCO), and in country-specific programs such as the Container Security Intiative (CSI) and the Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (CTPAT) administered by the United States. In addition, a host of foreign countries, including Australia, Canada, Sweden and New Zealand have introduced new cargo security programs following 9/11 or have strengthened previously existing programs. Many of these countries aim to harmonize their cargo security standards with those of the United States. Although substantial progress has been made in the development of post-9/11 cargo security programs, some have expressed concern regarding the programs’ efficacy, their costs to business, and their effects on cross-border trade. At present, post-9/11 cargo security programs continue to be refined, which may ultimately lead to changes in the direction and implementation of these programs.